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The test format is as follows:
I will give you 8 ID items of which you will answer 6 for 5 marks each. The 8 items are as follows:

The Constitutional Act of 1791

-         drafted by William Grenville, secretary of state for the colonies

-         divided Quebec into Upper (English) and Lower Canada

-         sought to prevent dissension between the two classes of men

-         established an elective Legislative Assembly in each Canada

o       could raise taxes instead of using imperial treasury; give voice to people

-         less than 3% of the population could vote (landowners)

-         sought to incorporate the French into the English system and culture


William Lyon Mackenzie

-         arrived in Upper Canada from Scotland in 1820

-         started a newspaper

-         attacked the Family Compact

-         won a seat in the Assembly in 1828

-         favored extending voting rights to white men in the middle and lower classes

-         he wanted an American form of government and led rebellion for it


The Durham Report

-         Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada was not supported by most Upper Canadians, but there were more extensive uprisings in Lower Canada.

-         Lord Durham was sent to find the problems in the colony, and report back to Britain.  He was made governor general of all BNA colonies.

-         His report made a number of important recommendations:

o       Advocated greater colonial self-government

o       Only large issues such as constitutional concerns, foreign relations, trade with Britain and other colonies, and disposal of public lands should be decided by Britain.

o       Also, the colonial governor should choose his closest advisers (the Executive Council) from the majority party in the Assembly and abide by the wishes of these elected representatives. (Responsible government)

o       Recommended a union of the two Canada’s which would primarily benefit Upper Canada (further inland shipping costs/canal construction)

-         He favoured a union of all BNA colonies, and assimilation of the French Canadians.

-         The British accepted union but rejected responsible government.

 Responsible Government

-         British government had ceased to play an active role in politics

-         Lord Elgin arrived in 1847 as governor general

-         London didn’t need to control trade anymore because free trade was now here

-         Elgin was to behave in a strictly neutral fashion, because Britain wanted colonial autonomy

-         The governor assented to legislation adopted by Parliament, unless he judged it contrary to the interests of Britain

-         Moved Canada forward along the road to democracy and political autonomy

-         It ensured that the leaders of the governing party would control patronage


The Act of Union, 1840

-         English was recognized as the only official language of the Assembly.

-         The united province assumed Upper Canada’s debt

-         The area of Upper Canada became known as Canada West.


Palliser’s Triangle

The Charlottetown Conference

-         September 1, 1864 to September 7

-         John A. MacDonald and Cartier laid out the groundwork, particularly those dealing with the division of powers between the central and provincial governments.

-         Continued loyalty to the Crown through membership in the British empire

-         Strong central government within a federal union in which the provinces retained control over their own local affairs

-         Representation in a lower house based on population and an upper house based on regional representation

-         The Maritimers abandoned their talk of an only Maritime union

-         Met again in Quebec on October 10


Then you will do one of three essay questions. The questions are about 1). English French relations, or 2). groups excluded from power and 3). groups who had power.

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